ETF- for BEGINNERS Step-by-Step Spoiler

ETFs, or exchange-traded funds, are a simple way to begin investing. ETFs are simple to understand and can provide excellent returns with little cost or effort. This is what you should know about ETFs, how they work, and how to get them.

When ETF started  in India? 

Nippon India ETF is a mutual fund that invests in India. Since its inception on December 28, 2001, Nifty BeES, India’s most seasoned ETF, has lasted a long time. The exchange traded fund (ETF) was first introduced as a feature of Benchmark Mutual Fund, which stands for the BeES part of the company’s name.

What is an ETF? 

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are arguably the most important and significant item created for individual investors in recent years. ETFs have numerous advantages and, when used properly, can be an excellent vehicle for achieving an investor investment goal.

For the time being, an ETF is a collection of insurance policies that you can buy and sell on a stock exchange through a brokerage firm. 

ETFs are available in almost every asset class, ranging from traditional investments to essentially elective resources such as products or monetary standards. 

Similarly, innovative ETF structures enable investors to short markets, gain influence, and avoid fees associated with transient capital additions.

After a few false starts, ETFs got off to a strong start in 1993 with the SPY, or “Insects,” ETF, which went on to become the most popular volume ETF ever. ETFs are valued at $5.83 trillion in 2021, with nearly 2,354 ETF items traded on US stock exchanges.

Types of ETFs/ Schemes of ETFs 

  • Market ETFs: ETFs that track a specific index, such as the S&P 500 or the NASDAQ, are known as market ETFs.
  • Bond ETFs: Bond ETFs are designed to provide access to almost every type of security available, including US Treasury, corporate, municipal, international, high-yield, and a few others.
  • Sector and industry ETFs:  ETFs that track a specific industry, such as oil, drugs, or high-tech, are known as sector and industry ETFs.
  • Product ETFs:  ETFs that track the price of a specific commodity, such as gold, oil, or corn, are known as product ETFs.
  • Style ETFs: These are ETFs that are designed to track a specific venture style or market capitalization concentration, such as large cap worth or small cap development.
  • Foreign Market ETFs: ETFs that track non-US markets, such as the Nikkei Index in Japan or the Hang Seng Index in Hong Kong.
  • Inverse ETFs: These funds are designed to profit from a drop in the hidden market or a drop in the stock market.
  • Effectively managed ETFs: Unlike most ETFs, which are designed to follow a list, they are designed to beat it.
  • ETNs (exchange-traded notes) are debt securities backed by the creditworthiness of the issuing bank and designed to provide access to illiquid markets; they also have the added benefit of avoiding capital increases for all intents and purposes.
  • Alternative Investment ETFs: Innovative designs, such as ETFs, that allow investors to swap insecurity for exposure to a specific venture procedure, such as money transfer or covered call writing.

How ETFs work?

During the day, when the stock exchanges are open, an ETF is traded like a company stock. An ETF, like a stock, has a ticker symbol, and intraday value information is easily accessible throughout the trading day.

Unlike a company stock, the number of outstanding shares of an ETF can change on a daily basis.  Due to  the continuous creation of new shares and the reclamation of existing offers 

The ability of an ETF to continuously issue and recover shares ensures that the market price of ETFs remains consistent with their fundamental protections.

Despite the fact that the ETF is intended for individual investors. Institutional investors play an important role in maintaining liquidity and ensuring the ETF’s integrity by purchasing and selling creation units. 

Which are massive squares of ETF shares that can be traded for bushels of hidden securities. Organizations use the exchange system managed by creation units to align the ETF cost with the fundamental resource esteem whenever the cost of the ETF deviates from the hidden resource esteem

Why ETFs? 

The appeal of ETFs:

Simple to trade – Unlike most mutual funds, which only trade at the end of the day, you can trade at any time.

Tax Proficient: ETFs are more tax efficient than actively managed mutual funds because they generate fewer capital addition circulations.

Trading transaction: Financial backers can submit a variety of request types (e.g., limit orders or stop-loss orders) that cannot be made with mutual funds because they are traded like stocks.

Disadvantages of ETFs

ETFs, on the other hand, have a number of drawbacks, including:

  • Exchange costs: If you only contribute a small amount every now and then, putting directly with a fund organization in a no-load fund may be a better option.
  • Illiquidity: Some ETFs with limited liquidity have wide offered/ask spreads, which means you’ll buy at the high cost of the spread and sell at the low cost of the spread.
  • Following blunder: While ETFs generally track their fundamental performance well, specialized issues can cause discrepancies.
  • Settlement dates: ETF deals aren’t agreed to for two days after an exchange; this means that as the merchant, your assets from an ETF deal won’t be available to reinvest for two days.

Investing strategies

ETFs can be used to gain access to virtually any market on the planet or any industry sector once you’ve decided on your investment objectives. 

You can invest in a regular style using stock index and bond ETFs, and change the proportion as your risk tolerance and objectives change. 

Alternative resources, such as gold, products, or emerging securities exchanges, can be added. Similar to speculative stock investments, you can quickly move through business sectors, anticipating more limited term swings. 

ETFs, on the other hand, give you the flexibility to be any type of financial backer you need to be.

Difference between Mutual Fund, Index Fund and ETF

→ Difference between ETF and Index Fund 

  • ETFs and index funds are often confused, which is incorrect. Investors should be aware of the differences, despite the fact that they have few similarities. 

PRO TIP: The primary distinction between index funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) is that index funds are common asset plans into which you do not need a demat or share exchanging account because they are not traded. Index funds can be purchased directly from the AMC or through an MFD, similar to other mutual fund schemes.

  • You must, however, have a demat and share trading account in order to invest in ETFs.
  • The method by which you trade these two types of speculation vehicles is a key distinction. 
  • Index funds are estimated once a day, and you usually contribute a set amount of money. 
  • Index Funds can be purchased through a company or directly from the provider, but the main issue is that the transaction is not immediate.
  • ETFs, on the other hand, trade like stocks on major exchanges like the NYSE and Nasdaq
  • Rather than donating a fixed amount, you choose the number of offers you want to purchase. 

→ Difference between Mutual Fund and ETF 

  • ETF costs fluctuate throughout the trading day because they trade like stocks, and you can buy portions of ETFs at any time the securities exchange is open.
  • The AMC acts as a financial institution to the investors in mutual funds. 
  • Though ETFs are listed on stock exchanges like shares, investors conduct their purchase/sale transactions with the AMC. 
  • ETFs can be traded in the stock market at a fixed cost.
  • NAVs for common assets are calculated at the end of the day. 
  • Nonetheless, ETF prices fluctuate in real time throughout the day, much like stock prices, based on market demand and supply.
  • You can invest directly in mutual funds through an AMC or through an AMFI-certified mutual fund distributor (MFD). 
  • However, in order to invest in ETFs, you must first open a demat and trading account with a stock broker.
  • ETFs don’t expect to surpass the benchmark index they track; instead, they expect to repeat the benchmark index’s profits.
  • ETF cost proportions are significantly lower when compared to actively managed mutual fund schemes because they are passive funds.

What the future holds?

Since its launch over 27 years ago, the ETF industry has been characterized by growth. In the coming years, there will undoubtedly be new and more unusual ETFs to learn about. 

While progress is a net positive for investors, it’s important to remember that not all ETFs are created equal. 

Before investing in any ETF, you should conduct thorough research and consider all factors to ensure that the ETF you choose is the best vehicle for achieving your venture objectives.


You should carefully consider the risks associated with various ETFs. Several area ETFs, for example, will almost always be more unpredictable than an ETF that tracks a larger market. Before investing in an ETF, consult with a financial expert to ensure you understand the risks and have the most up-to-date information.

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